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It is a given that when you look far ahead, you may not succeed for a host of reasons. You cannot let the fear of failure discourage you. We strive to engage with as many people as possible in the wireless industry—even those who are opposed to our new ideas.

The goal is always to explain, refine, promote, and collaborate around the innovation. Nevertheless, some concerns remained, which is often the case with groundbreaking innovations. We were, and continue to be, strongly committed to a long, bright future for both cellular and Wi-Fi.

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In the end, after much effort and perseverance, we prevailed. Another exciting aspect of LTE-U is that it created a foundation for additional innovations, which occurred very rapidly as well.

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LAA is already available in many commercial handsets and is in deployment around the world. See Figure 1 above. We need to bring these same innovations and more into 5G. We need to use unlicensed and shared spectrum in 5G to deliver the type of connectivity that people can only dream about today.

MulteFire will create opportunities for new entities, including entities without licensed spectrum:. Yes, MulteFire will require new devices that conform to the MulteFire Alliance industry-wide specifications. The MulteFire Alliance MFA announced its formation on December 16, and issued a call for global industry participation through voluntary membership—which was the foundation of the MulteFire ecosystem starting with the specification development. The purpose of the MFA is to support the common interests of members, developers and users in the application of LTE and next generation mobile cellular technology in configurations that use only unlicensed or shared radio spectrum.

LTE-U: LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum - CableFree

The MulteFire Alliance published its Release 1. Specifically, the MulteFire standard is based on LAA that defines LTE operation in unlicensed spectrum when assisted by an anchor in licensed spectrum. The MulteFire Alliance announced its Release 1. Since MulteFire only relies on unlicensed or shared spectrum, MulteFire will support R13 components for the downlink and align with the definition of R14 LAA components for the uplink in unlicensed or shared spectrum.

MulteFire caters to all regulations in unlicensed spectrum, including power levels, channel sensing for coexistence and Listen- Before-Talk LBT requirements using Clear Channel Assessment Procedures and channel occupancy limits. As MulteFire is based on LTE with LAA functionality, it inherits the coexistence functionality and will offer the same fair coexistence and be an equally good neighbor in unlicensed spectrum as has been demonstrated for LAA.

MulteFire technology provides secure, seamless service, proving to be ideal for local area small cell deployments especially for dense environments for indoor and outdoor locations and in business-critical markets. Yes, LTE-U and LAA with a licensed anchor and carrier aggregation are very robust as the essential procedures of acquisition, access, registration, paging, mobility and control signaling are carried out over the primary licensed anchor LTE carrier.

It is therefore required that the operator already has access to licensed spectrum to build upon, hence limits its reach to licensed spectrum owners only. MulteFire will operate solely in unlicensed or shared spectrum for all purposes — including for data, signaling and all other operations.

As a result, MulteFire is different in that manner and its performance is optimized for the unlicensed case without a robust anchor in licensed spectrum. However, the coverage and capacity performance of the LAA unlicensed spectrum would be very similar to that of MulteFire. The Release 1. The completion of MulteFire 1. Release 1. MulteFire is also envisioned to support waveform enhancements to LTE for wider bandwidth.

MulteFire is envisioned to be the highest performance solution to solely operate in unlicensed and shared spectrum. We expect Wi-Fi and MulteFire to coexist as both will have different use cases, and specific deployment scenarios will determine which solution is chosen.

Uplink performance enhancement for LTE licensed-assisted access to unlicensed spectrum

We also expect many MulteFire deployment scenarios to include both technologies, especially to provide backward compatibility and support for legacy Wi-Fi devices. Yes, depending on the deployment scenario. In fact, the key benefits of MulteFire around increased coverage and multi-user capacity should lower the overall cost of networks where multiple access nodes are required.

LTE in unlicensed and shared spectrum is expected to evolve further with optimizations in performance and cost, especially in the high-bandwidth scenarios which will become common with MulteFire. Yes, we envision that MulteFire will support wider bandwidths following the progression of LTE which currently supports the aggregation of five carriers total of MHz announced as of early of carrier aggregation with LAA.

Licensed spectrum provides a noise free environment and controlled environment as opposed to MulteFire solely operating in unlicensed and shared spectrum with potential bursty uncontrolled interference from other networks and technologies such as Wi-Fi.

Wi-Fi Now 2016: Panel discussion on LTE in unlicensed bands

Klozar, J. Sebesta, T.

LTE-U: LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum

Deka, S. Chakraborty, J. Roy, "Optimization of spectrum sensing in cognitive radio using genetic algorithm", Facta Universitatis, Series: Electronics and Energetics, vol. Jeon, H. Niu, QC Li, A. Papathanassiou, G. Babaei, J. Andreoli-Fang, Y. Pang, B. Sagari, S. Baysting, D. Saha, I.