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Through forced migration and torture, slave owners extracted continual increases in efficiency from their slaves, giving the country a virtual monopoly on the production of cotton, a key raw material of the Industrial Revolution. Referring to the defensive moves that white people make when challenged racially, white fragility is characterized by emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt and by behaviors including argumentation and silence.

These behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium and prevent meaningful cross-racial dialogue. In this groundbreaking history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein explodes the myth that America's cities came to be racially divided through de facto segregation - that is, through individual prejudices, income differences, or the actions of private institutions like banks and real estate agencies.

Rather, he incontrovertibly makes clear that it was de jure segregation - the laws and policy decisions passed by local, state, and federal governments - that actually promoted the discriminatory patterns that continue to this day. As Ferguson, Missouri, erupted in August , and media commentators across the ideological spectrum referred to the angry response of African Americans as 'black rage', historian Carol Anderson wrote a remarkable op-ed in the Washington Post showing that this was, instead, 'white rage at work. With so much attention on the flames,' she wrote, 'everyone had ignored the kindling.

Combining classical Marxism, psychoanalysis, and the new labor history pioneered by E. Thompson and Herbert Gutman, David Roediger's widely acclaimed book provides an original study of the formative years of working-class racism in the United States. This, he argues, cannot be explained simply with reference to economic advantage; rather, white working-class racism is underpinned by a complex series of psychological and ideological mechanisms that reinforce racial stereotypes, and thus help to forge the identities of white workers in opposition to Blacks.

Lynch mobs, chain gangs, and popular views of black Southern criminals that defined the Jim Crow South are well known. We know less about the role of the urban North in shaping views of race and crime in American society. Chronicling the emergence of deeply embedded notions of black people as a dangerous race of criminals by explicit contrast to working-class whites and European immigrants, this fascinating book reveals the influence such ideas have had on urban development and social policies.

Spanning more than years, An African American and Latinx History of the United States is a revolutionary, politically charged narrative history arguing that the "Global South" was crucial to the development of America as we know it.

The History of White People in America: Volume II (TV Movie ) - IMDb

Ortiz challenges the notion of westward progress, and shows how placing African American, Latinx, and Indigenous voices unapologetically front and center transforms American history into the story of the working class organizing against imperialism. In this "penetrating new analysis" New York Times Book Review , Ira Katznelson fundamentally recasts our understanding of 20th century American history and demonstrates that all the key programs passed during the New Deal and Fair Deal era of the s and s were created in a deeply discriminatory manner.

Through mechanisms designed by southern democrats that specifically excluded maids and farm workers, the gap between blacks and whites actually widened despite postwar prosperity. Poor whites were central to the rise of the Republican Party in the early 19th century, and the Civil War itself was fought over class issues nearly as much as it was fought over slavery.

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Reconstruction pitted poor white trash against newly freed slaves, which factored in the rise of eugenics. During the 19th century, the United States entered the ranks of the world's most advanced and dynamic economies. At the same time, the nation sustained an expansive and brutal system of human bondage. This was no mere coincidence. Slavery's Capitalism argues for slavery's centrality to the emergence of American capitalism in the decades between the Revolution and the Civil War.

Guyanese intellectual Walter Rodney emerged as one of the leading thinkers and activists of the anticolonial revolution. In , shortly after founding of the Working People's Alliance in Guyana, the year-old Rodney would be assassinated. In his magnum opus, Rodney incisively argues that grasping "the great divergence" between the West and the rest can only be explained as the exploitation of the latter by the former.

This meticulously researched analysis of the repercussions of European colonialism in Africa remains an indispensable study for grasping global inequality today. In the era of colorblindness, it is no longer socially permissible to use race, explicitly, as a justification for discrimination, exclusion, and social contempt.

Why White People are Called Caucasian (Illustrated)

Yet, as legal star Michelle Alexander reveals, today it is perfectly legal to discriminate against convicted criminals in nearly all the ways that it was once legal to discriminate against African Americans. White Americans have long been comfortable in the assumption that they are the cultural norm. Now that notion is being challenged, as white people wrestle with what it means to be part of a fast-changing, truly multicultural nation. Facing chronic economic insecurity, a popular culture that reflects the nation's diverse cultural reality, and a future in which they will no longer constitute the majority of the population, and with a black president in the White House, whites are growing anxious.

The making of white people

In this classic work, Professor George G. James methodically shows how the Greeks first borrowed and then stole the knowledge from the Priests of the African Egyptian Mystery System. He shows how the most popular philosophers including Thales, Anaximander, Plato and Socrates were all treated as men bringing a foreign teaching to Greece. A teaching so foreign that they were persecuted for what they taught.

A mind-expanding and myth-destroying exploration of notions of white race—not merely a skin color but also a signal of power, prestige, and beauty to be withheld and granted selectively. Ever since the Enlightenment, race theory and its inevitable partner, racism, have followed a crooked road, constructed by dominant peoples to justify their domination of others. Our story begins in Greek and Roman antiquity, where the concept of race did not exist, only geography and the opportunity to conquer and enslave others.

Not until the eighteenth century did an obsession with whiteness flourish, with the German invention of the notion of Caucasian beauty. Here was a worldview congenial to northern Europeans bent on empire. There followed an explosion of theories of race, now focusing on racial temperament as well as skin color. Spread by such intellectuals as Madame de Stael and Thomas Carlyle, white race theory soon reached North America with a vengeance. Its chief spokesman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, did the most to label Anglo-Saxons—icons of beauty and virtue—as the only true Americans.

It was an ideal that excluded not only blacks but also all ethnic groups not of Protestant, northern European background. Did immigrations threaten the very existence of America? Americans were assumed to be white, but who among poor immigrants could become truly American? A tortured and convoluted series of scientific explorations developed—theories intended to keep Anglo-Saxons at the top: the ever-popular measurement of skulls, the powerful eugenics movement, and highly biased intelligence tests—all designed to keep working people out and down.

As Painter reveals, power—supported by economics, science, and politics—continued to drive exclusionary notions of whiteness until, deep into the twentieth century, political realities enlarged the category of truly American. And, as Painter addresses, post—First World War radicalism was met by the ruling class with a Red Scare that included the scapegoating of immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe, waves of deportations, and anti-immigrant legislation.

Rather than being simply a social construction emanating from academia and achieving consensus among the broader populace, changing definitions of American whiteness have been shaped by the outcomes of struggles that challenge these elites from below. If human beings invented these disgraceful institutions, we can tear them down. Skip to main content. Race and Class. Review by Gary Lapon.

Issue 77 : Reviews Share. By Nell Irvin Painter. Search form Search. Delusions of green growth.

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Issue contents. The History of White People Cover of the first edition. The New York Times. San Francisco Chronicle. The New Yorker. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 12 June Nell Irvin Painter homepage. Retrieved 1 August Categories : Ethnic studies publications non-fiction books History books about the United States Non-fiction books about racism Works about white people.

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